Evidence Supporting the PACIC

Uptake, usage and adaptation of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care scale has steadily increased since it was first published in 2003.† In 2005, a brief bibliography was compiled by ICIC staff and published online.† In 2012, the ICIC team again reviewed the literature and created an informal, selected update to this collection of noteworthy peer-reviewed articles utilizing or referencing the PACIC.† Dating 2006-2012, we offer here links to studies of special note or interest.
 
2006 Review of evidence supporting the PACIC
Aragones A, Schaefer EW, Stevens D, Gourevitch MN, Glasgow RE, Shah NR. Validation of the Spanish translation of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) survey. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008 Oct;5(4):A113. Epub 2008 Sep 15. [Link]
 
Glasgow RE, Wagner EH, Schaefer J, Mahoney LD,† Reid RJ, Greene SM. Development and Validation of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC). Med Care† 2005; 43(5):436-44. [Link]
  • The PACIC has 5 subscales & was moderately correlated to hypothesized scales.† It produced similar means and standard deviations across six different chronic diseases and showed moderately stable test-retest validity.
Glasgow RE, Whitesides H, Nelson CC, King DK.† Use of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) With Diabetic Patients: Relationship to patient characteristics, receipt of care, and self-management. Diabetes Care 2005; 28 (11):2655-61. [Link]† 
  • When the PACIC was retested among a larger, more diverse population of patients, the original findings were confirmed.
Vrijhoef HJ, Berbee R, Wagner EH, Steuten L.† Quality of integrated chronic care measured by patient survey: identification, selection and application of most appropriate instruments. Health Expect. 2009 Aug 26. [Link]
 
2012 Evidence update
Impact of the Chronic Care Model on medication adherence when patients perceive cost as a barrier.† Mackey K, Parchman ML, Leykum LK, Lanham HJ, NoŽl PH, Zeber JE. Prim Care Diabetes. 2012 Jul;6(2):137-42. Epub 2012 Jan 20.† [Link]
 
Use of RE-AIM to develop a multi-media facilitation tool for the patient-centered medical home. Glasgow RE, Dickinson P, Fisher L, Christiansen S, Toobert DJ, Bender BG, Dickinson LM, Jortberg B, Estabrooks PA. Implement Sci. 2011 Oct 21;6:118. [Link]
 
Implications of reassigning patients for the medical home: a case study. Coleman K, Reid RJ, Johnson E, Hsu C, Ross TR, Fishman P, Larson E. Ann Fam Med. 2010 Nov-Dec;8(6):493-8. [Link]
 
The influence of literacy on patient-reported experiences of diabetes self-management support. Wallace AS, Carlson JR, Malone RM, Joyner J, Dewalt DA. Nurs Res. 2010 Sep-Oct;59(5):356-63. [Link]
 
The effects of guided care on the perceived quality of health care for multi-morbid older persons: 18-month outcomes from a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Boyd CM, Reider L, Frey K, Scharfstein D, Leff B, Wolff J, Groves C, Karm L, Wegener S, Marsteller J, Boult C. J Gen Intern Med. 2010 Mar;25(3):235-42. Epub 2009 Dec 22. [Link]
 
Effects of guided care on family caregivers. Wolff JL, Giovannetti ER, Boyd CM, Reider L, Palmer S, Scharfstein D, Marsteller J, Wegener ST, Frey K, Leff B, Frick KD, Boult C. Gerontologist. 2010 Aug;50(4):459-70. Epub 2009 Aug 26. [Link]
 
Filling the gaps between performance incentive programs and health care quality improvement. Hasnain-Wynia R, Jean-Jacques M. Health Serv Res. 2009 Jun;44(3):777-83. Review. No abstract available. [Link]
 
Effects of self-management support on structure, process, and outcomes among vulnerable patients with diabetes: a three-arm practical clinical trial. Schillinger D, Handley M, Wang F, Hammer H. Diabetes Care. 2009 Apr;32(4):559-66. Epub 2009 Jan 8. [Link]
 
Validation of the Spanish translation of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) survey. Aragones A, Schaefer EW, Stevens D, Gourevitch MN, Glasgow RE, Shah NR. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008 Oct;5(4):A113. Epub 2008 Sep 15. [Link]
 
The Patients Assessment Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire in The Netherlands: a validation study in rural general practice. Wensing M, van Lieshout J, Jung HP, Hermsen J, Rosemann T. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Sep 1;8:182. [Link]
 
Where is the patient in diabetes performance measures? The case for including patient-centered and self-management measures. Glasgow RE, Peeples M, Skovlund SE. Diabetes Care. 2008 May;31(5):1046-50. [Link]
 
Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) and improved patient-centered outcomes for chronic conditions. Schmittdiel J, Mosen DM, Glasgow RE, Hibbard J, Remmers C, Bellows J. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Jan;23(1):77-80. Epub 2007 Nov 21. [Link]