Heart Failure

This bibliography was prepared for the ICIC Collaborative on Heart Failure. It contains the defining clinical trials, behavioral and self-management support literature, as well as publications describing the Chronic Care Model. Links to the National Library of Medicine (NLM) site for the articles are provided when possible. The NLM site gives access to the article abstract when available, as well as other information. For information regarding the research methodology used to produce this bibliography, see the Bibliography Overview.
Articles referencing clinicial guidelines may not reflect current standards.  For up-to-date clinical guidelines, please consult the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC), a public resource for evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. NGC is an initiative of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
McAlister FA, Lawson FM, Teo KK, Armstrong PW. A systematic review of randomized trials of disease management programs in heart failure. Am J Med. 2001 Apr. 1;110(5):378-84. [Link]  

Stevenson LW; Massie BM, Francis GS. Optimizing therapy for complex or refractory heart failure: A management algorithm. Proceedings of the Advanced Heart Failure Group meetings. Am Heart J. 1998; 135(6 Pt 2):S293-S309. [Link]

Most of the hospitalizations, deaths, and costs associated with heart failure are incurred by a relatively small minority of patients with advanced disease. These patients may be described as having "complex," "advanced," "refractory," or "end-stage" heart failure, but in essence they are patients who have moderate or severe symptoms or who experience recurrent hospitalizations or emergency department visits despite therapy with diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and dioxin. Improving the treatment of this group of patients by optimizing their medical regimen, monitoring aggressively, and providing early intervention to avert decompensation can reduce their morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. This article provides a management algorithm for these patients.   

ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Guidelines for the evaluation and management of heart failure. J Am Coll Cardio. 2005 Sep 20;46(6):e1-82. [Link]

These guidelines were developed by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. The guidelines were based primarily on a comprehensive review of published reports. In cases where the data do not appear conclusive, recommendations are based on the consensus opinion of the group.  

Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Clinical Practice Guidelines. Heart failure: Evaluation and care of patients with left-ventricular systolic dysfunction. AHCPR Publication No. 940612. June 1994; Rockville, MD. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. [Details]

This document describes the range of diagnostic and management strategies that the guideline panel considers appropriate for heart failure patients with left-ventricular systolic dysfunction. The recommendations are based where possible on evidence obtained from extensive literature reviews. Where evidence was lacking, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion of the panel, as formulated after receiving input and suggestions from dozens of consultants around the country. The guideline is organized around a clinical algorithm, designed to provide assistance with decision-making strategies for patients and practitioners on a case-by-case basis.  Copies can be ordered from AHCPR Publications Clearinghouse.

Primary Care Interventions
Rich MW. Heart failure disease management: a critical review. J Cardiac Failure 1999;5:64-75. [Link]

A comprehensive review of the published literature on heart failure disease management programs. The impact of disease management on clinical outcomes and costs are described, and the limitations of currently available data are discussed. 48 references.

Dauterman, DW; Massie, BM, Gheorghiade, M. Heart failure associated with preserved systolic function: A common and costly clinical entity. Am Heart J. 1998;135(6 Pt 2):S310-319. [Link]

Patients with CHF and preserved systolic function are surprisingly common, representing 20% to 50% of all patients with the diagnosis of CHF. Yet the effective treatment of patients with CHF caused by diastolic dysfunction remains speculative, because there have not been any conclusive outcome studies. This article reviews the mechanisms, epidemiology, and therapy of CHF with preserved systolic function.

Gheorghiade M, et al. Current medical therapy for advanced heart failure. Proceedings of the Advanced Heart Failure Group meetings. Am Heart J. 1998;135(6 Pt 2):S231-48. [Link]

This article is a review of current pharmacological options for the management of advanced heart failure including digoxin, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, and anticoagulants. Address reprint requests to Mihai Gheorghiade, MD, Northwestern University Medical School, Division of Cardiology, 250 E Superior, Wesley 524, Chicago, IL 60611.

Schulman KA, Mark DB, Califf RM. Outcomes and costs within a disease management program for advanced congestive heart failure. Am Heart J. 1998;135(6 Pt 2):S285-92. [Link]

Disease management programs offer the potential to improve the care of patients with advanced congestive heart failure, to provide accountability on the part of managed care programs to payers and employers for the care of these patients, and to improve the efficiency of MCOs.

Uretsky BF, Pina I, Quigg RJ, et al. Beyond drug therapy: Nonpharmacologic care of the patient with advanced heart failure. Proceedings of the Advanced Heart Failure Group meetings. Am Heart J. 1998;135(6 Pt 2):S264-84. [Link]

Notwithstanding the tremendous importance of drug therapy, non-pharmacologic approaches to the care of the heart failure patient become increasingly important as the severity of heart failure advances. This article presents a comprehensive framework for the variety of useful and important non-pharmacologic treatments for heart failure and describes how efficient and effective care can be delivered to the patient with advanced heart failure.

Scott J, Gade G, McKenzie M, Venohr I. Cooperative health care clinics: A group approach to individual care. Geriatrics. 1998;53(May):68-81. [Link]

Provides a how-to description of the cooperative health care clinic, a group visit model used in primary care. Initial efforts were with geriatric patients. This model has been successfully used with patients with diabetes.

Stewart S, Pearson S, Horowitz JD. Effects of a home-based intervention among patients with congestive heart failure discharged from acute hospital care. Arch Intern Med. 1998 May;158(10):1067-72. [Link]

Among a cohort of high-risk patients with congestive heart failure, a home-based intervention was associated with reduced frequency of unplanned readmissions, fewer days of hospitalization, and fewer deaths within 6 months of discharge from the hospital.

Beck A, Scott J, Williams P, et al. A randomized trial of group outpatient visits for chronically ill older HMO members: The cooperative health care clinic. JAGS. 1997; 45: 543-549. [Link]

Evidence that group visits can provide clinical care and result in beneficial outcomes for patients and providers.

Fonarow GC, et al. Impact of a comprehensive heart failure management program on hospital readmission and functional status of patients with advanced heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;30:725-32. [Link]

A comprehensive heart failure management program led to improved functional status and an 85% decrease in the hospital readmission rate for enrolled patients. The potential to reduce both symptoms and costs suggests that referral to a heart failure program may be appropriate for medical management of persistent functional class III and IV heart failure.

Rich MW, Beckham V, Wittenberg C, Leven CL, Freedland KE, Carney RM. A multidisciplinary intervention to prevent the readmission of elderly patients with congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1190-95. [Link]

A nurse-directed, multidisciplinary intervention can improve quality of life and reduce hospital use and medical costs for elderly patients with congestive heart failure. Address

Wasson J, Gaudette C, Whaley F, Sauvigne A, Baribeau P, Welch HG. Telephone care as a substitute for routine clinic follow-up. JAMA . 1992;267:1788-1793. [Link]

The first randomized clinical trial demonstrating cost savings and satisfactory care from substituting regularly scheduled, proactive phone calls for some clinic visits.
Self-Management Interventions
Lorig KR, Sobel DS, Stewart AL, et al. Evidence suggesting that a chronic disease self-management program can improve health status while reducing utilization and costs: A randomized trial. Medical Care. 1999;37(1):5-14. [Link]
Research basis for the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program developed by the Stanford Patient Education Research Center.  For additional information, visit Stanford University School of Medicine's Patient Education Chronic Disese Self-Management Web site homepage. 

Brown JE, Glasgow RE, Toobert DJ. Integrating dietary self-management counseling into the regular office visit. Practical Diabetol. 1996 Dec: 16-22. [Link N/A]

Examines the successes, difficulties, and implications of integrating patient self-management support, particularly dietary self-care regimens, into primary-care office visits.
Systems Interventions
Phillips CO, Wright SM, Kern DE, Singa RM, Shepperd S, Rubin HR. Comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support for older patients with congestive heart failure: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004 Mar 17;291(11):1358-67. [Link]
Evidence in support of routine application of comprehensive discharge planning plus postdischarge support for older inpatients with CHF to optimize the transition from acute hospital care to home.

Vogt TM, Hollis JF, Lichtenstein E, Stevens VJ, Glasgow R, Whitlock E. The medical care system and prevention: the need for a new paradigm. HMO Practice. 1998; 12(1): 5-13. [Link]

Reviews the priorities, effective use of resources and barriers to action in the use of preventive services, with recommendations for changing the paradigm.

Wagner EH. Chronic disease management: What will it take to improve care for chronic illness? Eff Clin Pract.1998;1:2-4. [Link]

This editorial introduces an entire issue devoted to chronic illness care and is the first article publishing the model for improvement of chronic illness.  

Von Korff M, Gruman J, Schaefer J, Curry SJ, Wagner EH. Collaborative management of chronic illness. Ann Inter Med. 1997; 127: 1097-1102. [Link]

This review article with an extensive bibliography describes the elements of collaborative care.

Wagner EH. The promise and performance of HMOs in improving outcomes in older adults. JAGS. 1996;44:1251-1257. [Link]

Reprint of the Solomon Lecture for the Geriatric Medicine Review outlining the challenges in caring for older adults.

Wagner EH, Austin BT, Von Korff M. Organizing care for patients with chronic illness. Milbank Q. 1996; 74(4): 511-544. [Link]

Comprehensive discussion of the model for improving chronic illness care.

Payne TH, Galvin MS, Taplin SH, Austin B, Savarino J, Wagner EH. Practicing population-based care in an HMO: Evaluation after 18 months. HMO Practice. 1995;9:101-106. [Link]

Describes the experience of one practice team in providing population-based care, demonstrating improved guideline implementation and screening compliance